This post is the English translation of my post “Como se livrar da pseudociência”, published in Portuguese here.
Some months ago I read a post which started like this “Studies show that any post which starts with studies show will be taken seriously by the reader”. This is, of course, a joke (or better, a metajoke), but it is, in some sense also true.
We are flooded with information from multiple sources. Only in Facebook there is a multitude of “so said” science channels. Due to the anarchist nature of internet, anyone can create one of these pages or even a science blog (no pun intended). Worse than that, everyone competes for attention.
Dealing with science one should expect honesty and knowledge of the subject by the ones who create these channels. Unfortunately this is not always the case. In the nonsense search for audience these channels share questionable posts, either by ignorance (in the sense of lack of knowledge) or by ill intention. This is one of the sources of pseudoscience.
There is, however, another source of pseudoscience: ideology driven channels. Fundamentalist religious groups and adepts of conspiracy theories use the internet to gather followers. Ideology and science never worked well together, the ability to question the results is an integral part of the scientific method and this kind of fanatic is unable to proceed with this questioning, so what they generate is always pseudoscience.
But what about the reader? How can he (or she) protect from (or even recognize) pseudoscience? After all, not everybody interested in science has the capability to understand the details and particularities of the scientific method. Also, many of my colleagues refuse to educate the general population and, particularly n Brazil, the poorness of science teaching in the fundamental and intermediate education levels create the proper ground for spreading pseudoscience.
Here are some clues to recognize pseudoscience:
- Be suspicious of bombastic contents. Once I read a post which claimed the disk of planet Mars would appear in the sky with the same size as the Moon, this is obviously ridiculously impossible.
- Due scientific results are usually published in trustworthy sources: scientific magazines and pages maintained by important universities and research institutes. Published articles usually go through the peer reviewing, a process in which other scientists (usually anonymous) evaluate the work before publishing (but attention, really revolutionary results are usually published in repositories first, therefore before peer reviewing, this does not mean they are less trustworthy). It is always important to read the original source (if possible), the authors of the articles not always understand what they read.
- Trust in the science you learned. It is true that really revolutionary results may challenge the view we have from reality at any moment, but Newton’s third law, mass and energy conservation, and the basic chemical reactions in biological organisms will not cease to exist from one day to the other.
- True science admits the contradictory, so, get suspicious of any post which claims to defend the absolute truth, without questioning the own result.
I hope this helps.